Vitamin D: key references and evidence

Afzal S, Brøndum-Jacobsen P, Bojesen SE, Nordestgaard BG. Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and increased mortality: Mendelian randomisation analysis in three large cohorts. British Medical Journal 2014;349:g6330. 

Ahmed SF, Franey C, McDevitt H, et al. Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children's hospital in Glasgow. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2011;96(7):694-696.

Autier P, Gandini S. Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality - a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167(16):1730-1737.

Autier, P, Boniol M, Pizot C, Mullie P. Vitamin D status and ill health: A systematic review. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology 2013;2(1):76-89.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84:18-28.

Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011;7 CD007470 DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD007470.pub2

Bolland MJ, Grey A, Avenell A, et al. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular events: Reanalysis of the women's health initiative limited access dataset and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal 2011;341(d2040).

Brøndum-Jacobsen P, Benn M, Afzal S, Nordestgaard BG. No evidence that genetically reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease or myocardial infarction: a Mendelian randomization study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2015;651–661. 

Chowdury R, Kunutsor S, Vitezova A, et al. Vitamin D and risk of cause specific death: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and randomised intervention studies. British Medical Journal 2014;348:g1903, doi:10.1136/bmj.g1903.

Chung M, Lee J, Terasawa T, et al. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: An updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 2011;155(12):827-838.

Durup D, Jørgensen HL, Christensen J, et al. A reverse J-shaped association of all-cause mortality with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in general practice, the CopD study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012;97(8):2644-52.

Elamin MB, Abu Elnour NO, Elamin KB, et al. Vitamin D and cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2011;96(7):1931-1942.

Gandini S, Boniol M, Haukka J, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. International Journal of Cancer 2011;128(6):1414-1424.

Garland CF, Kim JJ, Mohr SB, et al. Meta-analysis of all-cause mortality according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. American Journal of Public Health 2014;104:e43–e50.

Gillie O. Scotland's health deficit: An explanation and a planLondon: Health Research Forum, 2008. 

Grandi NC, Breitling LP, Brenner H. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Preventive Medicine 2010;51(3-4):228-233.

Helzlsouer KJ, VDPP Steering Committee. Overview of the cohort consortium vitamin D pooling project of rarer cancers. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010;172(1):4-9.

Hsia J, Heiss G, Ren H, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular events. Circulation 2007;115(7):846-854.

Khaw KT, Luben R, Wareham N. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mortality, and incident cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancers, and fractures: a 13-y prospective population study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014; doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086413. 

McCartney G, Collins C, Walsh D, Batty D. Accounting for Scotland's excess mortality: towards a synthesis.  Glasgow: Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2011. 

Michaelsson K, Baron JA, Snellman G, et al. Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: A community-based prospective cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;92(4):841-848.

Mitri J, Muraru MD, Pittas AG. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;65(9):1005-1015.

Mokry LE, Ross S, Ahmad OS, et al. Vitamin D and risk of multiple sclerosis: A Mendelian randomization study. PLOS Medicine 2015;13(3):e1001981.

Rush L, McCartney G, Walsh D, MacKay D. Vitamin D and subsequent all-age and premature mortality: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2013;13:679.

Russ TC, Gatz M, Pedersen NL, Hannah J, Wyper G, Batty GD, Deary IJ, Starra JM. Geographical variation in dementia. Examining the role of environmental factors in Sweden and Scotland. Epidemiology 2015;26(2):263-70. 

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Vitamin D and health. London, Public Health England, 2016. 

Schöttker B, Jorde R, Peasey A. Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States. BMJ 2014;348:g3656.

Scragg R. Vitamin D and public health: An overview of recent research on common diseases and mortality in adulthood. Public Health Nutrition 2011;14(9):1515-1532.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Jacobs EJ, Arslan AA, et al. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010;172(1):81-93.

Theodoratou E, Tzoulaki I, Zgaga L, Ioannidis JPA. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. British Medical Journal 2014;348: g2035 doi:10.1136/bmj.g2035.

Tunstall-Pedoe H, Woodward M, Hughes M, et al. Prime mover or fellow traveller: 25-hydroxy vitamin D’s seasonal variation, cardiovascular disease and death in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC). International Journal of Epidemiology 2015; doi:10.1093/ije/dyv092

Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: Randomised double blind controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2003;326(7387):469.

Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(7):684-696.

Walsh D, Bendel, N, Jones R, Hanlon P. It's not 'just deprivation': Why do equally deprived UK cities experience different health outcomes?  Public Health 2010;124(9):487-495.

Welsh P, Sattar N. Vitamin D genes and mortality: harnessing genetics to re-examine the case for vitamin D. BMJ 2014;349:g6599. 

Zittermann A, Iodice S, Pilz S, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and mortality risk in the general population: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;95(1):91-100.

Effectiveness evidence

ScotPHO's purpose is to describe the pattern of health across the Scottish population. As a supplementary service to users, we include the following links to external sources of quality-assured evidence on effectiveness of interventions which may include relevant material for this topic. These links are provided as an aid to users. They are by no means exhaustive nor should they be necessarily viewed as authoritative.

NHS Health Scotland: Scottish briefings on NICE public health guidance

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

Cochrane Library: Browse by topic

EPPI-Centre: Evidence library

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence services: Evidence search

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance: Find guidance

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)


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