Pregnancy, births and maternity: key references and evidence


Ajetunmobi OM et al. (2015), Breastfeeding is Associated with Reduced Childhood Hospitalization: Evidence from a Scottish Birth Cohort (1997–2009) Journal of Pediatrics, 166(3): 620-625. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.11.013

Ammon Avalos, L., Galindo, C. and Li, D.-K. (2012), A systematic review to calculate background miscarriage rates using life table analysis. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 94: 417–423. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23014

Dieterich et al. (2013), Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother–infant dyad. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 60(1): 31-48. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.010

Duijts et al. (2009), Breastfeeding protects against infectious diseases during infancy in industrialized countries. A systematic review. Maternal & Child Nutrition. 5(3): 199-210. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2008.00176.x

Ip et al. (2007), Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evidence Report / Technology Assessment. April (153): 1-186.

NHS Health Scotland (2016), Breastfeeding HPHS briefing (2015) (forthcoming).

Renfrew et al. (2012), Preventing disease and saving resources: the potential contribution of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK. London: UNICEF.

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. (2011), Dietary Reference Values for Energy. London: Public Health England.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2013), Long-term effects of breastfeeding: a systematic review. Geneva: WHO. 

A series of six papers on reducing stillbirths (2011) is available from the Lancet at The Lancet stillbirths series, covering incidence and prevalence and data issues.

The Growing Up in Scotland study has generated a number of reports and briefings about pregnancy and birth, and on infant feeding.

Effectiveness evidence

ScotPHO's purpose is to describe and explain the pattern of health across the Scottish population. As a supplementary service to users, we include the following links to external sources of quality-assured evidence on effectiveness of interventions which may include relevant material for this topic. These links are provided as an aid to users. They are by no means exhaustive nor should they be necessarily viewed as authoritative.

The Maternal and Early Years website provides a number of briefings covering physical activity in the early years, smoke free homes, health inequalities, nutrition and oral and mental health and also alerts which are continually updated.

Health Scotland addresses inequalities in pregnancy, and offers comprehensive effectiveness evidence and guidance for early years professionals.

NHS Health Scotland: Scottish Briefings on NICE public health guidance - Index page

Healthcare Improvement Scotland

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - Home page

Cochrane Reviews - Topic index page

EPPI-Centre: Evidence library - Home page

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance - Topic index page

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) - Home page

Keeping Childbirth Natural and Dynamic (KCND) programme,

Expert Group on Maternity Services (2002) (EGAMS

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