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Religion, spirituality and belief: key references and evidence

Bache RA, Bhui KS, Dein S, Korszun A. African and Black Caribbean origin cancer survivors: a qualitative study of the narratives of causes, coping and care experiences. Ethnicity & Health2011 Nov 23;17[1-2]:187-201.

Baillot, H., Murray, N., Connelly E Howard N Tackling Female Genital Mutilation: A Scottish Model of Intervention, Glasgow: Scottish Refugee Council,(2014)

Banning M. Black women and breast health: a review of the literature. European Journal of Oncology Nursing 2011 Feb;15[1]:16-22

Bhopal R. Glossary of terms relating to ethnicity and race: for reflection and debate. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health2004;58[441-5]

Boyd, G., Hodgkiss, F. Variations in the Experience of Inpatients in Scotland Analysis of the 2010 Inpatient Survey (2011)

Boyd, G., David, S., Hodgkiss, F. Variations in the Experiences of Primary Care Patients Analysis of the Scottish Patient Experience Survey of GP and Local NHS Services 2011/12  (2013)

Ceuterick M, Vandebroek I, Pieroni A. Resilience of Andean urban ethnobotanies: a comparison of medicinal plant use among Bolivian and Peruvian migrants in the United Kingdom and in their countries of origin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology2011 Jun 14;136[1]:27-54

Codjoe L, Byrne M, Lister M, McGuire P, Valmaggia L. Exploring perceptions of "wellness" in black ethnic minority individuals at risk of developing psychosis. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy2013 Mar;41[2]:144-61

Coruh B, Ayele H, Pugh M, Mulligan T. Does religious activity improve health outcomes? A critical review of the recent literature. . Explore: The Journal of Science & Healing2005 May;1[3]:186-91

Debnam K, Holt CL, Clark EM, Roth DL, Southward P. Relationship between religious social support and general social support with health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine2012 Apr;35[2]:179-89

EHRC. Standard of living. How fair is Britain? Equality, human rights and good relations in 2010: the first triennial review. (2011).

Eshiett MU, Parry EH. Migrants and health: a cultural dilemma. [Review] [9 refs]. Clinical Medicine2003 May;3[3]:229-31

Gordon D, Graham L, Robinson M, Taulbut M. Dimensions of Diversity: population differences and health improvement opportunities. Glasgow: Scottish Public Health Observatory;(2010).

Green G, Bradby H, Chan A, Lee M. "We Are Not Completely Westernised": Dual Medical Systems and Pathways to Health Care among Chinese Migrant Women in England. Social Science and Medicine2006;62[6]:1498-509.

Hatzenbuehler ML, Phelan JC, Link BG. Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities. American Journal of Public Health2013 May;103[5]:813-21.

Hjelm K, Isacsson A, Apelqvist J. Healthcare professionals' perceptions of beliefs about health and illness in migrants with diabetes mellitus. Practical Diabetes International1998 Nov;15[8]:233-7

Kelly Y, Becares L, Nazroo J. Associations between maternal experiences of racism and early child health and development: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health2013 Jan;67[1]:35-41

Knifton L, Gervais M, Newbigging K, Mirza N, Quinn N, Wilson N, et al. Community conversation: addressing mental health stigma with ethnic minority communities. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology2010 Apr;45[4]:497-504.

Koo K. Carers' representations of affective mental disorders in British Chinese communities. Sociology of Health & Illness2012 Nov;34[8]:1140-55

Leiba T. Mental scars of racism. Nursing Standard2012 Oct 3;27[5]:22-3

Mavroeidi A, O'Neill F, Lee PA, Darling AL, Fraser WD, Berry JL, et al. Seasonal 25-hydroxyvitamin D changes in British postmenopausal women at 57 degrees N and 51 degrees N: a longitudinal study. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology2010 Jul;121[1-2]:459-61

McCullough ME, Hoyt WT, Larson DB, Koenig HG, Thoresen C. Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology2000;19[3]:211-22.

Millard A.D., Raab G, Lewsey J, Eaglesham P, Craig P, Ralston K, McCartney G. Mortality differences and inequalities within and between 'protected characteristics' groups, in a Scottish Cohort 1991–2009. International Journal for Equity in Health 2015; 14:142. Available from: 

Papadopoulos I. Lees S, Lay M, Gebrehiwot A, Ethiopian refugees in the UK: migration, adaptation and settlement experiences and their relevance to health. Ethnicity & Health; 9 Feb 2004:  55-73;

Pargament KI. APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. American Psychological Association; (2013).

The Scottish Government published a High Level Summary of Equality Statistics: Key Trends for Scotland (2006). This includes a range of "high level" statistics across a number of equality dimensions including age, disability, ethnicity, gender and in some cases religion.

Scottish Government. Religion and belief evidence review (2013)

Scottish Government. Characteristics of recent and established EEA and non-EEA migrants in Scotland Analysis of the 2011 Census  (2015)

Scottish Government. Equally Well - Our approach to tackling inequalities  (2010) - (Uses Antonovsky’s sense of coherence theory to underpin the Scottish approach to health inequalities)

Scottish Government. Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census (part 2)  (2015)

Scottish Government. Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census (2005)

Scottish Government. Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2010:Attitudes to Discrimination and Positive Action.  (2011)

Scottish Government. Scottish Health Survey Topic Report on Equality Groups (2012)

Scottish Government Statistician group. Overview of Equality results from the 2011 Census Release 2 (2014)

Simpson J, Robinson K, Creighton SM, Hodes D. Female genital mutilation: the role of health professionals in prevention, assessment, and management. British Medical Journal2012;344[e1361]

Voulgari, A Women and Forced Marriage in Scotland, (1.4MB) Edinburgh, Saheliya, (2012)

Whybrow P, Ramsay J, MacNee K. Scottish Health Survey Topic Report: Equality Groups. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; (2012)

Woolley SL, Smith DR. ENT surgery, blood and Jehovah's Witnesses. Journal of Laryngology & Otology2007 May;121[5]:409-14

Effectiveness evidence

ScotPHO's purpose is to describe the pattern of health across the Scottish population. As a supplementary service to users, we include the following links to external sources of quality-assured evidence on effectiveness of interventions which may include relevant material for this topic. These links are provided as an aid to users. They are by no means exhaustive nor should they be necessarily viewed as authoritative.

NHS Health Scotland: Scottish briefings on NICE public health guidance

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

Cochrane Library: Browse by topic

EPPI-Centre: Evidence library

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence services: Evidence search

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance: Find guidance

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Please note: ScotPHO is not responsible for the content or reliability of linked websites and does not necessarily endorse the views expressed within them. Listing should not be taken as endorsement of any kind. ScotPHO can take no responsibility for information contained on websites maintained by other organisations or for actions taken as a result of information contained on websites maintained by other organisations.

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Page last updated: 14 September 2017

© Scottish Public Health Observatory 2014