Health inequalities: key references and evidence



Note that this is not, and is not intended to be, a comprehensive list of references relevant to health inequalities. More detailed lists are available from some of the publications cited below.

Acheson D., 1998. Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report. The Stationery Office, London.

Beckfield J, Krieger N. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequities - evidence, gaps, and a research agenda. Epidemiologic Reviews 2009; 31: 152-77.

Beeston C., McCartney G., Ford J., Wimbush E., Beck S., MacDonald W., Fraser A. Health Inequalities Policy review for the Scottish Ministerial Task Force on Health Inequalities. Glasgow: NHS Health Scotland; 2013.

Black D., Morris J., Smith C., Townsend P. Inequalities in health: report of a Research Working Group. London: Department of Health and Social Security, 1980.

Carr-Hill R., Chalmers-Dixon P. Public Health Observatory Handbook of Health Inequalities Measurement. South East Public Health Observatory (SEPHO), 2005

Crombie I.K., Irvine L., Elliott L., Wallace H. Closing the health inequalities gap: an international perspective. (500KB). WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2005.

Davey Smith G., Dorling, D., Mitchell, R., and Shaw M. Health inequalities in Britain: continuing increases up to the end of the 20th century. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2002; 56: 434-435.

Dorling D. Death in Britain. How local mortality rates have changed: 1950s - 1990s. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1997.

Dorling D., Rigby J., Wheeler B., Ballas D., Thomas B., Fahmy E., Gordon D. and Lupton R. Poverty and wealth across Britain 1968 to 2005. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, The Policy Press, 2007

Dorling D., and Thomas B., People and Places - a 2001 census atlas of the UK. The Policy Press, Bristol, 2004

Dorling D., Mitchell R., and Pearce J. The global impact of income inequality on health by age: an observational study. BMJ 2007;335(7625):873.

Eikemo T.A. & Mackenbach J.P. (Eds).  EURO GBD SE: the potential for reduction of health inequalities in Europe. Final Report. University Medical Center Rotterdam, 2012

EUROTHINE project. Tackling health inequalities in Europe: an integrated approach (final report). Rotterdam, 2007.

Health Development Agency. Promoting Healthier Communities and narrowing health inequalities: a self-assessment tool for local authorities. HDA, 2004.

Judge K., Platt S., Costongs C., & Jurczak C. Health Inequalities: a Challenge for Europe. UK Presidency of the EU, 2005.

Kawachi I., Subramanian S.V., Almeida-Filho N. A glossary for health inequalities. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2002; 56: 647–652.

Krieger N., Rehkopf D.H., Chen J.T., Waterman P.D., Marcelli E., Kennedy M. The Fall and Rise of US Inequities in Premature Mortality: 1960–2002. PloS Medicine 2008; 5(2): 227-241

Kunst A.E. et al. Monitoring of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: experiences from a European project. Demographic Research, April 2004.

Leyland A.H., Dundas R., McLoone P., Boddy F.A. Inequalities in mortality in Scotland 1981-2001. MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 2007.

Link B.G, Phelan J.C. McKeown and the Idea That Social Conditions Are Fundamental Causes of Disease. American Journal of Public Health 2002; 92(5).

Lynch, J. W., Smith, G. D., Kaplan, G. A., & House, J. S. 2000, Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ, vol. 320, no. 7243, pp. 1200-1204.

Mackenbach, J.P. Health inequalities: Europe in profile. UK Presidency of the EU, 2005.

Mackenbach, J.P., Stirbu I., Roskam A.R., Schaap M.M., Menvielle G., Leinsalu M., and Anton E. Kunst. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in 22 European Countries. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2468-81.

Marmot et al. The Marmot Review: Fair Society, Healthy Lives. Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010. The Marmot Review, London, 2010

Marmot, M. & Wilkinson, R. G. 2001, Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health: a response to Lynch et al. BMJ, vol. 322, no. 7296, pp. 1233-1236.

McIntyre S. Inequalities in health in Scotland: what are they and what can we do about them? MRC Social & Public Health Sciences Unit. Occasional Paper No. 17, 2007.

Navarro V. What we mean by social determinants of health. International Journal of Health Services 2009; 39(3): 423–441

Mitchell R., Dorling D., Shaw M. Inequalities in life and death - what if Britain were more equal? The Policy Press, Bristol, 2000.

Munoz-Arroyo R., Sutton M. Measuring socio-economic inequalities in health: a practical guide. ScotPHO 2007

Regidor E. Measures of health inequalities: part 1. J.Epidemiol.Community Health 2004;58:858-61.

Regidor E. Measures of health inequalities: part 2. J.Epidemiol.Community Health 2004;58:900-3.

Scott S., Curnock E., Mitchell R., Robinson M., Taulbut M., Tod E., McCartney G. What would it take to eradicate health inequalities? Testing the fundamental causes theory of health inequalities in Scotland. Glasgow: NHS Health Scotland; 2013.

Shaw M., Davey Smith, G. and Dorling, D. Health inequalities and New Labour: how the promises compare with real progress. BMJ 2005;330;1016-1021

Shaw, M., Dorling, D., Gordon, D., & Davey Smith, G. The Widening Gap: health inequalities and policy in Britain, 2 edn, The Policy Press, Bristol, 1999.

Thomas B., Dorling D., Davey Smith G. Inequalities in premature mortality in Britain: observational study from 1921 to 2007. BMJ 2010;341:c3639

WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. World Health Organization, 2008.

Whitehead M. The health divide. London: Health Education Council; 1987.

Whitehead M., Dahlgren G. Concepts and principals for tackling social inequities in health: Levelling Up Parts 1 & 2. World Health Organisation 2006.

Wilkinson, R. Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality. Routledge, London. 1996.

Wilkinson, R. The impact of inequality. Routledge, London. 2005.

Wilkinson R., Pickett K. The Spirit Level - Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better. Allen Lane, 2009

Effectiveness evidence

ScotPHO's purpose is to describe the pattern of health across the Scottish population. As a supplementary service to users, we include the following links to external sources of quality-assured evidence on effectiveness of interventions which may include relevant material for this topic. These links are provided as an aid to users. They are by no means exhaustive nor should they be necessarily viewed as authoritative.

NHS Health Scotland: Scottish briefings on NICE public health guidance

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination

Cochrane Library: Browse by topic

EPPI-Centre: Evidence library

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence services: Evidence search

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance: Find guidance

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

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